As the name indicates, they are substances that are added to food to improve its
appearance or to preserve its taste and quality. Additives have been used for centuries
and some of them are natural such as vinegar, salt and vitamin C. Food additives
are listed on the food labels in the ingredient list and can be identified by numbers.
The addition of additives to foods is normally regulated by recognized agencies
such as the Unites States Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Reliable food companies
respect the addition of additives to their products from the approved safe list
and in safe amounts.
Amino acids are the building blocks of protein. There are 20 different types that
are combined in different ways to make different proteins. The body can make some
of its own amino acids but some are essential meaning that they cannot be made by
the body so we need to get them from food.
Anemia indicates a decrease in the number of red blood cells (RBC) in the blood
or less than normal amount of haemoglobin in the RBCs. Hemoglobin transfers oxygen
from the lungs to all body cells where it is used to produce energy and give the
skin its healthy color. So when a deficiency exists, less oxygen is transported
to body cells which will make us feel unpleasant symptoms such as tiredness, pale
skin, less concentration and headaches. The most common kind of Anemia is Iron Deficiency
Anemia which is especially seen in women and children, and is caused by inadequate
intake of iron containing foods in the diet. Iron containing foods include red meat
and chicken, in addition to legumes (Lentils, beans, chickpeas) and green leafy
vegetables (spinach, parsley). The iron from meat and chicken is better absorbed
than that from vegetarian sources. So in order to increase the absorption of iron
from vegetarian foods, a vitamin C rich source such as lemon, oranges, melon, strawberries,
tomatoes or green pepper should accompany the meal.
Aspartame is an artificial sweetener made up of two amino acids – aspartate and
phenylalanine. These amino acids are found naturally in many foods such as meat,
vegetables, dairy products and cereal grains. Individually these amino acids are
not sweet, but joined together they produce an intense sweet taste that is approximately
200 times sweeter than sugar.
Acidophilus (Lactobacillus Acidophilus)
Acidophilus is a probiotic bacteria which is commonly found in yogurt. Probiotic
bacteria survive digestion in the stomach and help maintain the balance of ‘good
bacteria’ in the lower parts of the intestinal tract. A good balance of ‘friendly’
bacteria in the intestine reduces the risk of health problems.
Antioxidants are compounds that help to protect the body against damage caused by
free radicals. The body produces its own antioxidants and they are also found in
foods such as fruits and vegetables, tea, coffee and dark chocolate. Common antioxidants
are vitamins C, E and A, and phytochemicals likepolyphenols. Eating a diet rich
in antioxidants is beneficial for health and wellbeing.
Aerobic exercise, also known as cardiovascular exercise, raises the body’s demand
for oxygen resulting in an increase in heart rate and respiration rate. This type
of physical activity is relatively low to moderate in intensity and of long duration
(more than 20 minutes), such as walking, jogging, dancing, cycling, stair climbing,
swimming and jumping rope. These types of exercises, if done regularly, improve
Body Mass Index (BMI)
The body mass index is a way of assessing whether a person is in the healthy weight
range for their height. BMI is calculated by dividing your weight in kg by your
height in metres squared (BMI = kg/m2). People with a BMI between 18-25 kg/m2 are
considered a healthy weight, 25-30 kg/m2 overweight and over 30 kg/m2 obese.
Basal metabolic rate (BMR)
Basal Metabolic rate (BMR) is the rate at which the body uses energy at rest. This
energy is needed for the maintenance of basic body functions such as breathing,
maintaining a normal heart rate and body temperature. BMR varies according to body
weight, gender, growth rate and age.
A balanced diet contains a variety of food in appropriate amounts which provides
all the essential nutrients and energy required for good health. Variety and moderate
portions are key to a balanced diet.
Blood pressure is one of the important vital signs; it refers to the pressure exerted
upon the walls of the arteries as the heart pumps blood throughout the body. Blood
pressure is indicated in terms of systolic pressure over diastolic pressure, for
example a normal blood pressure is 120/80 mmHg. If the value is higher than 140/90mmHg,
then it is considered high, and a consistently high blood pressure increases the
risk of heart failure, heart attacks, strokes and kidney failure.
Caffeine is a naturally occurring chemical found in plants. Common sources are coffee
beans, tea leaves, guarana berries and smaller amounts are found in cocoa beans.
Caffeine acts as a stimulant to the nervous system in the body, increasing mental
Calories are a unit of energy. The amount of energy available in food is expressed
in Calories. What you read on food labels is Kilocalories which is equivalent to
Calories in 1 serving or 100 grams of that food product. Nutrients in food such
as carbohydrates, proteins and fats provide calories; Fat provides the most calories
per grams (9 Calories/gram) as compared to carbohydrates and proteins (4 Calories/gram).
Cholesterol is a fat-like substance that has important functions in the body including
an integral part of the structure of cells and being used by certain glands for
making sex hormones. There are two types of cholesterol in the blood: HDL (high
density liproprotein) or ‘good’ cholesterol and LDL (low density lipoprotein) or
‘bad’ cholesterol. High levels of LDL in the blood can increase the risk of cardiovascular
Calcium is a mineral that is an important component of our bones. Dairy foods such
as yogurt, milk and cheese are rich sources of calcium, and it is also found in
canned salmon and sardines with bones, some nuts, seeds and fortified foods such
as breakfast cereals.
Carbohydrates are short or long chains of sugars that play an important role in
the diet and are used to supply the body with energy. Sugar, starch and cellulose
are all types of carbohydrates. Bread, cereals, rice, pasta, legumes, fruit and
some vegetables are all good sources of carbohydrates.
Cardiovascular disease is a name given to a group of diseases that affect the heart
and/or blood vessels and includes stroke, heart attack, angina and high blood pressure.
Codex Alimentarius, meaning “Food law or code”, is a set of internationally adopted
food standards, guidelines, codes of practice, food labelling texts and other recommendations
relating to food, its production and safety. These were established by the Codex
Alimentarius Commission within the framework of FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization)
of the United Nations and WHO (World health Organization) with the purpose of ensuring
fair practice in the food trade and protecting the health of consumers.
Diabetes is a condition in which the body has difficulty controlling the level of
glucose (sugar) in the blood. There are three types of diabetes: type 1 (previously
called insulin dependent) where insulin is no longer produced; type 2 diabetes mellitus
(previously called non-insulin dependent) where the body does not respond well to
insulin, or the insulin that is produced does not work properly; and gestational
diabetes which is type 2 diabetes that occurs during pregnancy.
Dietary fibre is an indigestible form of carbohydrate of which there are three types,insoluble
fibre, soluble fibre and resistant starch. Insoluble fibre helps keep the bowel
regular by absorbing water which softens the bowel contents. It is mostly found
in wheat based foods such as bread and cereals and also in nuts, seeds, fruit and
vegetables. Soluble fibre, found mostly in fruits, vegetables, oats, dried beans
and peas, slows down the emptying of the stomach helping people feel full for longer.
Resistant starch is starch that is not digested in the small intestine but moves
to the large intestine where it is fermented by good bacteria to produce substances
that help keep the lining of the bowel healthy.
The food we eat provides calories which release energy in our body. This energy
is needed for normal body functions like breathing, digesting the food we eat and
performing our daily activities. Daily energy requirements differ depending on age,
sex, body weight and height and activity levels. Average daily needs for men are
about 2000-2500 Calories and women about 1800-2000 Calories.
Essential Fatty Acids
Essential fatty acids are types of fat that are needed for proper function and development
but need to come from the diet as they cannot be made by the body. There are two
essential fatty acids – linoleic acid (an omega-6 fatty acid) and alpha-linolenic
acid (an omega-3 fatty acid). Good sources of linoleic acid include polyunsaturated
oils and some nuts (e.g. walnuts) and some seeds (e.g. sesame). Good sources of
linolenic acid include canola oil, flaxseed and walnuts.
Electrolytes are the term used for minerals in solution. Some of the main electrolytes
in the body are sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chloride and phosphate. Minerals
play an important role in processes within the body such as nerve and muscle function
and fluid balance. Electrolyte levels in the body can be disturbed when large amounts
of fluid are lost such as in vomiting, diarrhoea and heavy sweating.
Emulsifiers are food additives that are added to food to help mix oil and water
ingredients. An example of a common emulsifier used in food is soy lecithin.
EFSA (European Food Safety Authority)
EFSA (European Food Safety Authority) is an independent source of scientific advice
and communication on the risks associated with the food chain in the European Union
(EU). They are committed to ensuring food safety and consumer protection in Europe.
It covers food and feed safety, nutrition, animal health and welfare and plant protection
and health. EFSA get involved in EU policy-making processes, for example, in approval
of pesticides and food additives, or developing new regulatory frameworks and policies
in the field of nutrition.
Folate is a B vitamin that is occurs naturally in green leafy vegetables, fruits
(e.g. bananas and oranges), legumes and peanuts. It is also added to some breakfast
cereals. Folate is needed in the body for proper cell development. An adequate intake
of folate pre-pregnancy and in the first three months can help reduce the risk of
foetal neural tube defects.
Fat is an essentialmacronutrientused by the body for functions like insulation,
protecting organs, as a store of energy and to supply fat soluble vitamins (A, D,
E and K). The types of fats includesaturated fat,monounsaturated fat,polyunsaturated
fatandtrans fat. Nutritionists recommend limiting saturated fat and trans fat in
Flavonoids are a type ofpolyphenol, which is a group of plant chemicals with a similar
chemical structure that act as antioxidants in the body. Sources include wine, grapes,
apples, tea, onions and berries. Flavonoids are found in small amounts in most vegetables
Flavours are a category of food additive that are added to food to impart a desired
flavour. There are three classes of flavours, natural, nature identical and artificial.
Fluids refer to the amount of liquid that we need each day. Our bodies are made
up of a high percentage of liquid, and we need to replenish our fluid losses regularly.
Daily fluid needs depend on many factors such as age, environment and activity levels.
We get fluids from both the food that we eat and the liquids that we drink.
Free radicals are highly reactive compounds that are produced within the body as
a product of normal metabolic process and due to outside influences, such as smoking,
air pollution and sunlight exposure. If the level of free radicals in the body is
not controlled they can cause damage to cells. Antioxidants produced within the
body or sourced from the diet help to control the level of free radicals.
Fructose is a monosaccharide (a sugar) which occurs naturally in fruit and honey.
It is the sweetest naturally occurring sugar. Glucose and fructose are joined together
to form the common sugar, sucrose. Fructose is also used as a sweetener in some
Food intolerance is when a person cannot digest a food component or compound. It
doesn’t produce an immune response like a food allergy. Symptoms mostly seen include
nausea, abdominal pain and diarrhea. Depending on the intolerance, people can still
eat small amount of the problem food. Examples of food intolerance include lactose
intolerance and intolerance to certain food additives.
Food allergy is when a person’s immune system reacts negatively against a certain
harmless food component. Symptoms vary from runny nose to skin rashes, nausea and
vomiting and can be sometimes serious when it causes swelling of the throat and
difficulty in breathing. Most allergenic foods include milk, eggs, wheat, soya,
fish, seafood and peanuts. The person has to avoid eating that food completely.
If diagnosed in infancy, the allergy is usually outgrown.
Glucose is a monosaccharide (a sugar). Carbohydrate containing foods are broken
down during digestion into glucose. The body’s cells use glucose to make energy
to fuel the body. Sometimes the words blood glucose and blood sugar are used interchangeably.
Genetically modified organisms (GMO) undergo a change in their genes or constitution.
This process is mainly performed on plants such as soybeans and corn to make them
resistant to insects or viruses, or to lower the use of pesticides. GM plants normally
bring higher yield for farmers. GM foods are foods derived from GMOs. Although some
GM foods are approved by the Unites States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and
many studies published its safety in humans, there’s still controversy going on
about their consumption. Foods that are GM are required to be labelled.
Gluten is a type of protein found in cereal plants like wheat, barely, rye and oats.
For some people, gluten is an allergen.
Glycemic Index (GI)
The Glycemic Index (GI) is a ranking of carbohydrate containing foods according
to the effect they have on blood glucose levels. Low GI carbohydrates are broken
down by the body slower and result in a more gradual rise in blood sugar levels.
High GI carbohydrates are broken down more quickly and result in more rapid increase
in blood sugar levels. A GI of less than 55 is considered low, 56-69 is considered
medium GI and a GI of 70 or over is considered high. Low GI foods are useful for
everyone, and particularly for those with type two diabetes mellitus, to help with
control of blood glucose levels. High GI foods can be useful for sport speople as
a more rapid source of glucose to fuel working muscles. GI is best used to compare
foods with similar carbohydrate contents, such as comparing one bread with another
or one breakfast cereal with another cereal.
Guideline Daily Amounts
Guideline Daily Amounts (GDAs) are a form of nutrition labeling seen on food labels
which aim to help consumers understand the nutrition information on the pack. GDAs
provide information on the quantities of specific nutrients in a given product.
They tell you what percentage of the daily recommended intake of that nutrient is
in the product as a percentage of a person’s daily dietary needs (calories, fat,
saturated fat, sugars, and sodium).
Halal foods are those that are free from any component that is considered unlawful
in Islam. They are processed, made, produced, manufactured and/or stored using utensils
and equipment that have been cleansed according to Islamic law.
The iron found in animal products is called haem iron. ‘Haem’ iron is found in high
amounts in red meat and offal. White meats such as fish and chicken also contain
haem iron but in smaller amounts than in red meat. As a general rule of thumb, the
redder the meat, the more iron. Haem iron is more efficiently absorbed by the body
than non-haem iron which comes from plant sources.
Hydrogenated fats are vegetable fats that have been chemically altered by the addition
of hydrogen (hydrogenation) with the purpose of making them more solid. Turning
a liquid oil into a more solid form makes it more stable for use in food manufacturing.
Sources of hydrogenated fats include some cooking margarines, biscuits, cakes, pies
and popcorn and many commercial frying oils.
Insulin is a hormone that is produced by the pancreas in response to the food we
eat. Insulin’s main role is to take glucose from the blood and move it into the
body’s cells so that the cells can use the glucose for energy.
Iron is a mineral that is used by the body to make haemoglobin, the part of the
red blood cell that transports oxygen. Iron-containing foods include red meat, poultry,
legumes, green leafy vegetables and whole grain breads and cereals. A lack of iron
in the diet or poor absorption of iron can lead to iron deficiency anaemia.
Insoluble fibre is a type of dietary fibre that is found in cereals, the outer skins
of some fruit and vegetables, nuts, seeds and often in high fibre breads. Insoluble
fibre absorbs water in the large intestine which helps to soften bowel contents
and promote regularity.
As with Calories, Kilojoules (KJ) is another unit that measures the amount of energy
available in food. You can also find it written on food labels. In the Middle East,
we normally use Calories as our unit of measurement. 1 Calorie=4.18 KJ.
Lactose is the sugar that occurs naturally in milk. It is a disaccharide that is
made from 2 sugars joined together (glucose & galactose).
Lactose intolerance is when the body does not make enough lactase, the enzyme needed
to digest lactose the main sugar in milk. So lactose passes unchanged into the large
intestine where it is fermented by bacteria causing cramps, gas and diarrhea. Depending
on the degree of the intolerance, milk and sometimes dairy need to be restricted
in the diet.
Minerals are compounds that occur in rocks and metal ores. Plants absorb minerals
through the soil, and animals get these minerals by eating the plants or by eating
other animals. Some of the major minerals required by the body include calcium,
phosphorus, magnesium, sulphur, potassium, chloride and sodium. Trace elements are
minerals needed by the body in smaller amounts such as iron, zinc, iodine, selenium,
copper, manganese, fluoride, chromium, molybdenum.
Carbohydrate, fat and protein are called macronutrients. Macronutrients supply the
body withenergy. We need macronutrients in larger amounts than vitamins and minerals
which are calledmicronutrients.
Maltodextrin is a polysaccharide (long chain of sugars) produced from corn or wheat
starch that is used as a food additive in many commercial foods including confectionery,
snacks and desserts.
Micronutrients are essential nutrients such as vitamins and minerals that are required
by our body in small quantities. Micronutrients are needed to help maintain proper
health and functioning of the body.
(MSG) Monosodium Glutamate
Monosodium glutamate occurs naturally in some foods like mature cheeses, tomatoes,
mushrooms and soy sauce. MSG also functions as a flavour enhancer and is sometimes
added to savoury products like soups, sauces and stocks. It is displayed in the
ingredient list as “flavour enhancer (monosodium glutamate)” or “flavour enhancer
Monounsaturated fats are the ‘good fats’ and are found in avocados, nuts such as
peanuts, almonds, cashews, macadamias and oils such as olive and canola.
Measuring units (1cup, 1tsp)
Measuring units are standard units for measuring physical quantity. When it comes
to food recipes, the usual unit of measurement for volume is the cup or spoon. 1
cup is equivalent to 240 ml and 1 Tablespoon (Tbsp)= 3 teaspoons (tsp)= 15 ml.
The iron found in plant foods is known as non-haem iron. Iron from plants is found
in wholegrain breads and cereals, legumes, nuts and seeds and some vegetables like
spinach. Non-haem iron is not absorbed by the body as well as haem iron from animal
products. Eating foods rich in vitamin C with a non-haem iron containing food can
help increase absorption of iron by the body.
Nutrition is the science of food and its relationship with health. Food is made
up of nutrients and a person needs all of the vital nutrients for good health and
prevention of disease. These nutrients are proteins, carbohydrates, fat, fiber,
vitamins, minerals and water. Good nutrition and a balanced diet are a foundation
for a leading a healthy life.
Nestlé Nutritional Compass®
Nestlé Nutrition Compass® is a labelling panel exclusive to Nestlé designed to guide
consumers to make healthier choices. It provides nutrition information and tips
on how to include the food as part of a balanced diet. It is found on the pack of
all Nestlé products.
Omega-3 fats are essential polyunsaturated fatty acids. Essential means that they
cannot be produced in the body and therefore must be obtained from food. They can
be classified into 3 different types: docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), eicosapentaenoic
acid (EPA) and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA). EPA and DHA can be used directly by the
body’s tissues. ALA can be converted to EPA and DHA in the body, however this is
not very efficient, with only 15% of ALA converted to EPA and DHA.
Organic foods are foods grown without pesticides, insecticides, hormones, chemical
fertilizers and other synthetic substances. Organic meat products come from animals
that were given no antibiotics or growth hormones.
Preservatives are a type of food additive used to help prevent the deterioration
of food by micro-organisms and preserve the food quality over an extended period
Probiotics are bacteria that help replenish the beneficial bacteria in the intestine.
Common foods that contain probiotics are yogurt and fortified milk. Maintaining
a balance of healthy bacteria in the intestine is beneficial for a healthy digestive
Pectin occurs naturally fruit and it is often added to foods to thicken or stabilize
them. Pectin is also used in throat lozenges because of its soothing properties.
Phytochemical or phytonutrient in broad terms means any chemical or nutrient derived
from a plant source. There are hundreds of phytochemicals in plants and it is believed
many are yet to be discovered. Phytochemicals are thought to be beneficial for general
health. Some commonly talked about phytochemicals are antioxidants such as flavonoids
in fruit and vegetables, lycopene in tomatoes and polyphenols in coffee and cocoa
beans. Plant sterols (see phytosterols) are another type of phytochemical.
Phytoestrogens are naturally occurring plant chemicals that are similar in structure
to the human hormone oestrogen. The most common phytoestrogens are the isoflavones
found in soy beans and lignans from linseed. Phytoestrogens behave similarly to
oestrogen in the body and are thought to help relieve some menopausal symptoms and
potentially have other health benefits.
Phytosterols are compounds that have a structure like cholesterol and are found
naturally in small amounts in foods such as vegetable oils, fruits, legumes and
nuts. When consumed regularly in concentrated products such as phytosterol-containing
margarines, they can help to lower cholesterol levels by reducing cholesterol absorption.
Polyphenols are naturally occurring plant chemicals, including flavonoids, catechins,
isoflavonoids, lignans and anthocyanins. They are antioxidants which may help protect
against oxidative damage and are most commonly found in some fruits and vegetables,
tea, coffee, soy, seeds, lentils and some dark chocolate.
Polyunsaturated fats are ‘good fats’. There are two main types of polyunsaturated
fats: omega-3 and omega-6. Omega-6 fatty acids are found in sunflower oil, some
margarines, some nuts (e.g. walnuts), some seeds (e.g. sesame, sunflower) and legumes.
Omega-3 fatty acids are found in oily fish such as mackerel, sardines, salmon and
tuna as well as canola and soybean oil.
Potassium is amineralthat plays an important role in our nervous system and is found
in fruits, vegetables, milk, and meat.
A prebiotic is a substance that promotes the growth of the beneficial bacteria in
the intestine. Prebiotics work by providing food for the intestinal bacteria. Examples
of prebiotics are inulin and fructooligosaccharides.
Protein is an essential nutrient that is used in the body for the growth and repair
of cells and to provide energy. Protein is found in both plant and animal foods.
Sources of protein include meat, eggs, dairy foods, nuts and seeds, dried beans
Recommended Dietary Intake
Recommended dietary intakes are the daily dietary intake levels for certain nutrients
and are determined for different age and gender groups. The RDI is designed to be
sufficient to meet the nutrient requirements of nearly all healthy people.
Saturated fat is commonly referred to as ‘bad fat’ because of its impact on blood
cholesterol levels. Saturated fats are often solid at room temperature and are the
type of fat predominantly found in meat and dairy foods but also in vegetable sources
such as palm and coconut oil.
Satiety is the physiological feeling of satisfaction or fullness after a meal.
Sodium is a mineral that is a component of salt. While our body requires a certain
amount of sodium to maintain proper functioning, too much has been associated with
increased blood pressure in some people.
Soluble fibre is a type of dietary fibre that is thought to help in lowering cholesterol
levels. Beta-glucan is a type of soluble fibre found in high amounts in oats and
barley. Fruit and vegetables, dried beans and lentils are other sources of soluble
Also known as saccharides, sugars are the smallest form of carbohydrates. When we
digest carbohydrate containing foods they are broken down into single sugars for
absorption into the blood. Naturally occurring sugars include fructose (mostly found
in fruits) and lactose in milk. Glucose is naturally present in some fruits and
honey and sucrose is found in sugar cane and sugar beet. Cakes, biscuits and soft
drinks contain added sugars.
Strength training, often referred to as Resistance training, is a physical exercise
designed to increase muscles strength. It uses the force of a muscle against some
form of resistance such as free weights (dumbbells), machine weights or a person’s
own body weight (push-ups).
Stevia is a herb that’s 300 times sweeter than sugar. It’s used as a non-caloric
Trans fat occurs naturally in low levels in some animal foods such as dairy products.
Commercially baked or fried foods can be a major source of trans fat, depending
on the type of fat used in their manufacture. Trans fats are unsaturated fats that
have had their structure changed through the process of hydrogenation and, like
saturated fats, are considered a ‘bad’ type of fat as they have been shown to raise
blood cholesterol levels.
Triglycerides are the most common form of fat found in the body and are a major
source of energy. They come from the food that we eat and can also be made in the
body. High levels of triglycerides in the blood increases the risk of heart disease.
Vegetarian refers to a diet that is predominantly based on plant foods. There are
different types of vegetarian diets in which different levels of animal foods may
be included. For example, a vegan diet contains no foods of animal origin, lacto-vegetarians
include dairy products and ovo-lacto-vegetarians include dairy products, honey and
eggs but avoid meat, chicken and fish.
Vitamin A is found in animal foods including liver, dairy products, egg yolk and
some fatty fish. Orange and yellow coloured fruit and vegetables (e.g. mangoes,
carrots) contain carotenoids such as beta-carotene which are converted into vitamin
A in the body. Vitamin A plays an important role in vision and growth and beta-carotene
acts as an antioxidant to help protect against free radical damage.
Vitamin B Group
The B group vitamins (B1 (thiamine), B2 (riboflavin), B3 (niacin), B5 (pantothenic
acid), B6, B12, folate and biotin) are found in meat, poultry, wholegrain products,
dairy products, eggs, green leafy vegetables, nuts and seeds. Their main role in
the body is in energy metabolism.
Vitamin C plays a role in ensuring healthy connective tissue such as skin and cartilage.
Vitamin C is also an antioxidant and can be found in a wide range of fruit and vegetables.
The main role of Vitamin E in the body is as an antioxidant. Vitamin E protects
many substances from oxidation but is particularly important for maintaining the
stability of cell membranes by protecting them from free radical damage. Good sources
of vitamin E include almonds, peanuts and soy bean oil.
Vitamins are essential micronutrients that are used in the body for a variety of
processes. They are classified into two groups - fat soluble and water soluble.
The fat soluble vitamins are vitamins A, D, E and K. The B group vitamins (B1, B2,
B3, B12), folate, biotin and vitamin C are water soluble vitamins.
Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin that promotes the absorption of calcium and its
deposition in bones and teeth making them stronger and healthier. Adequate vitamin
D prevents rickets (weakened bones) in children and osteomalacia in adults, and
when combined with enough calcium, helps prevent osteoporosis in older adults. The
body can make vitamin D when exposed to sunlight, another guaranteed source is foods
fortified with vitamin D such as milk and cereals. Recent studies link vitamin D
deficiency with the development of chronic diseases such as cancer and diabetes.
Wholegrains are seeds of plants like wheat, rye, corn, barley, rice and oats that
store the nutrients plants need to reproduce. Wholegrain foods contain the three
natural components of the grain kernel -the bran (outer layer), germ (middle layer)
and the endosperm (inner layer).
Zinc is a mineral that plays a part in many functions in the body including wound
healing and can be found in oysters, beef and wholegrain breads and cereals.