حياة صحية من الألف إلى الياء

قاموس التغذية

  • Additives AR

    As the name indicates, they are substances that are added to food to improve its appearance or to preserve its taste and quality. Additives have been used for centuries and some of them are natural such as vinegar, salt and vitamin C. Food additives are listed on the food labels in the ingredient list and can be identified by numbers. The addition of additives to foods is normally regulated by recognized agencies such as the Unites States Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

  • الأحماض الأمينية

    الأحماض الأمينية هي مركّبات البروتين، تتألف من 20 نوعاً، تؤلِّف باختلاف تركيباتها أنواعاً مختلفة منه. يصنّع الجسم بعض الأحماض الأمينية التي يحتاجها، إلاّ أنّ هناك بعض الأنواع الأساسية لا يمكن للجسم تصنيعها، وينبغي الحصول عليها من خلال النظام الغذائي.

  • AR Aerobic exercise

    Aerobic exercise, also known as cardiovascular exercise, raises the body’s demand for oxygen resulting in an increase in heart rate and respiration rate. This type of physical activity is relatively low to moderate in intensity and of long duration (more than 20 minutes), such as walking, jogging, dancing, cycling, stair climbing,swimming and jumping rope. These types of exercises, if done regularly, improve heart function.

  • Acidophilus (Lactobacillus Acidophilus) AR

    Acidophilus is a probiotic bacteria which is commonly found in yogurt. Probiotic bacteria survive digestion in the stomach and help maintain the balance of ‘good bacteria’ in the lower parts of the intestinal tract. A good balance of ‘friendly’ bacteria in the intestine reduces the risk of health problems.

  • Anemia AR

    Anemia indicates a decrease in the number of red blood cells (RBC) in the blood or less than normal amount of haemoglobin in the RBC's. Haemoglobin transfers oxygen from the lungs to all body cells where it is used to produce energy and give the skin its healthy color. So when a deficiency exists, less oxygen is transported to body cells which will make us feel unpleasant symptoms such as tiredness, pale skin, less concentration and headaches.

  • الأسبارتام

    الأسبارتام هو من المحلّيات الصناعية، مكوّن من نوعين من الأحماض الأمينية - حمض الأسبارتيك والفينيل ألانين. تتواجد هذه الأحماض الأمينية طبيعياً في الكثير من الأطعمة مثل اللحوم والخضار ومشتقّات الحليب والحبوب. لا تكون هذه الأحماض حلوة الطّعم إذا ما أُخِذ كلٌّ منها على حدة، ولكن يصبح طعمها حلواً للغاية يفوق حلاوة السكر بحوالى 200 مرّة عند مزجها ببعضها البعض.

  • Antioxidants AR

    Antioxidants are compounds that help to protect the body against damage caused by free radicals. The body produces its own antioxidants and they are also found in foods such as fruits and vegetables, tea, coffee and dark chocolate. Common antioxidants are vitamins C, E and A and phyto chemicals like polyphenols. Eating a diet rich in antioxidants is beneficial for health and well being.

  • Body Mass Index (BMI) AR

    The body mass index is a way of assessing whether a person is in the healthy weight range for their height. BMI is calculated by dividing your weight in kg by your height in metres square (BMI = kg/m2). People with a BMI between 18-25 kg/m2 are considered a healthy weight, 25-30 kg/m2 overweight and over 30 kg/m2 obese.

  • Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) AR

    Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) is the rate at which the body uses energy at rest. This energy is needed for the maintenance of basic body functions such as breathing,maintaining a normal heart rate and body temperature. BMR varies according to body-weight, gender, growth rate and age.

  • Balanced diet AR

    A balanced diet contains a variety of food in appropriate amounts that provides all the essential nutrients and energy required for good health. Variety and moderate portions are the key to a balanced diet.

  • Blood pressure AR

    Blood pressure is one of the important vital signs; it refers to the pressure exerted upon the walls of the arteries as the heart pumps blood throughout the body. Blood pressure is indicated in terms of systolic pressure over diastolic pressure, for example a normal blood pressure is 120/80 mmHg. If the value is higher than 140/90 mmHg,then it is considered high, and a consistently high blood pressure increases the risk of heart failure, heart attacks, strokes and kidney failure. 

  • Caffeine AR

    Caffeine is a naturally occurring chemical found in plants. Common sources are coffee beans, tea leaves, guarana berries and smaller amounts are found in cocoa beans.Caffeine acts as a stimulant to the nervous system in the body, increasing mental alertness.

  • Carbohydrates AR

    Carbohydrates are short or long chains of sugars that play an important role in the diet and are used to supply the body with energy. Sugar, starch and cellulose are types of carbohydrates. Bread, cereals, rice, pasta, legumes, fruit and certain vegetables are all good sources of carbohydrates.

  • Calories AR

    Calories are a unit of energy. The amount of energy available in food is expressed in calories. What you read on food labels are kilo calories which is equivalent to calories in 1 serving or 100 grams of that food product. Nutrients in food such as carbohydrates, proteins and fats provide calories; Fat provides the most calories per gram (9 calories/gram) as compared to carbohydrates and proteins (4 calories/gram).

  • Codex Alimentarius AR

    Codex Alimentarius, meaning “Food law or code”, is a set of internationally adopted food standards, guidelines, codes of practice, food labelling texts and other recommendations relating to food, its production and safety. These were established by the Codex Alimentarius Commission within the framework of FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization) of the United Nations and WHO (World Health Organization) with the purpose of ensuring fair practice in the food trade and protecting the health of consumers.

  • Cholesterol AR

    Cholesterol is a fat-like substance that has important functions in the body including an integral part of the structure of cells and being used by certain glands for making sex hormones. There are two types of cholesterol in the blood: HDL (high density lipoprotein) or ‘good’ cholesterol and LDL (low density lipoprotein) or ‘bad’ cholesterol. High levels of LDL in the blood can increase the risk of cardiovascular disease.

  • Calcium AR

    Calcium is a mineral that is an important component of our bones. Dairy foods such as yogurt, milk and cheese are rich sources of calcium, and it is also found in canned salmon and sardines with bones, some nuts, seeds and fortified foods such as breakfast cereals.

  • أمراض القلب

    أمراض القلب هو الاسم الذي يطلق على مجموعة الأمراض التي تصيب القلب والأوعية الدموية، وتشمل السكتة الدماغية، النوبة القلبية، الذبحة الصدرية وارتفاع ضغط الدّم.

  • Diabetes AR

    Diabetes is a condition in which the body has difficulty controlling the level of glucose (sugar) in the blood. There are three types of diabetes: Type 1 (previously called insulin dependent) where insulin is no longer produced; Type 2 Diabetes mellitus (previously called non-insulin dependent) where the body does not respond well to insulin, or the insulin that is produced does not work properly; and gestational diabetes which is type 2 diabetes that occurs during pregnancy.

  • الألياف الغذائية

    الألياف الغذائية هي نوع من الكربوهيدرات غير القابلة للهضم وتتألّف من ثلاثة أنواع: الألياف غير القابلة للذوبان، الألياف القابلة للذوبان والنشاء المقاوِم. تساعد الألياف غير القابلة للذوبان في المحافظة على حركةٍ منتظمة للأمعاء من خلال امتصاص الماء الذي يعمل على تليينها. تتواجد هذه الألياف عادةً في الأطعمة المصنوعة من القمح الكامل كالخبز ورقائق الفطور وأيضاً في المكسّرات والبذور والفواكه والخضار. أمّا الألياف الغذائية القابلة للذوبان والموجودة في معظم أنواع الفواكه والخضار، الشوفان والبقوليات والبازلاء، فهي تبطئ عمليّة إفراغ المعدة ما يساعد على الإحساس بالشبع لفترةٍ أطول.

  • Energy AR

    The food we eat provides calories that release energy in our body. This energy is needed for normal body functions like breathing, digesting the food we eat and performing our daily activities. Daily energy requirements differ depending on age, sex, body weight, height and activity levels. Average daily needs for men are about 2000-2500 calories and women about 1800-2000 calories.

  • الأحماض الدهنية الأساسية

    الأحماض الدهنية الأساسية هي أنواعٌ من الدّهون، ضروريةٌ لأداء الجسم لوظائفه بالشكل السليم، وأيضاً من أجل نموٍّ وتطوّرٍ صحّي. لا يقوم الجسم بتصنيعها، فينبغي الحصول عليها عبر الغذاء، وهناك نوعان منها – حمض اللينوليك linoleic acid (أوميغا 6) وحمض الألفا لينولينيك alpha-linolenic acid (أوميغا 3). تتألف المصادر الغنية بحمض اللينوليك من الزيوت النباتية غير المشبّعة وبعض المكسّرات (كالجوز مثلاً) والبذور (كالسمسم). أما المصادر الغنية بحمض الألفا لينولينيك فتتضمّن زيت الكانولا وبذور الكتّان والجوز وسمك السلمون.

  • Electrolytes AR

    Electrolytes is a term used for minerals in solution. Some of the main electrolytes in the body are sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chloride and phosphate. Minerals play an important role in processes within the body such as nerve and muscle function and fluid balance. Electrolyte levels in the body can be disturbed when large amounts of fluid are lost during vomiting, diarrhoea and heavy sweating.

  • Emulsifiers AR

    Emulsifiers are food additives that are added to food to help mix oil and water ingredients. An example of a common emulsifier used in food is soy lecithin.

  • EFSA (European Food Safety Authority) AR

    EFSA (European Food Safety Authority) is an independent source of scientific advice and communication on the risks associated with the food chain in the European Union (EU). They are committed to ensuring food safety and consumer protection in Europe. It covers food and feed safety, nutrition, animal health and welfare and plant protection and health. EFSA gets involved in EU policy-making processes, for example, in approval of pesticides and food additives, or developing new regulatory frameworks and policies in the field of nutrition.

  • Folate/Folic Acid AR

    Folate is a B-vitamin that occurs naturally in green leafy vegetables, in fruits like bananas and oranges and also in legumes and peanuts. It is also added in breakfast cereals. Folate is required by the body for proper cell development. An adequate intake of folate pre-pregnancy and during the first three months helps to reduce the risk of foetal neural tube defects.

  • Fat AR

    Fat is an essential macro nutrient used by the body for functions like insulation, protecting organs, as a storehouse of energy and to supply fat soluble vitamins (A, D, E and K). The types of fats include saturated fat,monounsaturated fat,polyunsaturated fat and trans fat. Nutritionists recommend limiting saturated fat and trans fat in the diet.

  • Flavonoids AR

    Flavonoids are a type of polyphenol, which is a group of plant chemicals with a similar chemical structure that act as antioxidants in the body. Sources include wine, grapes, apples, tea, onions and berries. Flavonoids are found in small amounts in most vegetables and fruits.

  • Flavours AR

    Flavours are a category of food additive that are added to food to impart a desired flavour. There are three classes of flavours, natural, nature identical and artificial.

  • Fructose AR

    Fructose is a monosaccharide (a sugar) that occurs naturally in fruit and honey. It is the sweetest naturally occurring sugar. Glucose and fructose are joined together to form the common sugar, sucrose. Fructose is also used as a sweetener in certain processed foods.

  • Food intolerance AR

    Food intolerance is when a person cannot digest a food component or compound. It doesn’t produce an immune response like a food allergy. Symptoms mostly seen include nausea, abdominal pain and diarrhea. Depending on the intolerance, people can still eat small amount of the problem food. Examples of food intolerance include lactose intolerance and intolerance to certain food additives.

  • Free radicals AR

    Free radicals are highly reactive compounds that are produced within the body as a product of normal metabolic process and due to outside influences, such as smoking, air pollution and sunlight exposure. If the level of free radicals in the body is not controlled they can cause damage to cells. Antioxidants produced within the body or sourced from the diet help to control the level of free radicals.

  • Fluids AR

    Fluids refer to the amount of liquid that we need each day. Our bodies are made up of a high percentage of liquid, and we need to replenish our fluid losses regularly. Daily fluid needs depend on many factors such as age, environment and activity levels. We get fluids from both the food that we eat and the liquids that we drink.

  • Food Allergy AR

    Food allergy is when a person’s immune system reacts negatively against a certain harmless food component. Symptoms vary from runny nose to skin rashes, nausea and vomiting and can be sometimes serious if it causes swelling of the throat and difficulty in breathing. Most allergenic foods include milk, eggs, wheat, soya, fish, seafood and peanuts. The person has to avoid eating such food completely that cause an allergy. If diagnosed in infancy, the allergy is usually outgrown.

  • Glucose AR

    Glucose is a monosaccharide (a sugar). Carbohydrate containing foods are broken down during digestion into glucose. The body’s cells use glucose to make energy to fuel the body. Sometimes the words ‘blood glucose’ and ‘blood sugar’ are used interchangeably.

  • GMO AR

    Genetically modified organisms (GMO) undergo a change in their genes or constitution. This process is mainly performed on plants such as soybeans and corn to make them resistant to insects or viruses, or to lower the use of pesticides. GM plants normally bring higher yield for farmers. GM foods are foods derived from GMO's. Although some GM foods are approved by the Unites States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and many studies published its safety in humans, there’s still controversy going on about their consumption. Foods that are GM are required to be labelled.